Solar PV Battery Charge Controller (Voltage Regulator)

Solar PV Charge Controller / Battery Voltage Regulator

A charge controller (aka voltage regulator, charge regulator or battery regulator) regulates the electrical charge going from a solar panel array to a battery bank, protecting the battery cells from being overcharged when they battery become full. The voltage regulator also stops reverse current flowing from the batteries to the solar panels, which would otherwise happen at night when the panels aren’t producing current. Charge controllers are an essential part of any solar PV battery system. Other components include:
  • Solar panel(s)
  • DC/AC inverter
  • Battery bank

Types of Charge Controllers

+++++++++ A Constant Voltage Regulator can either take a variable input DC voltage and convert it to a stable output voltage which can, depending on the converter, be higher or lower DC voltage than the input DC voltage. Diversion (Dump) Load Controllers: have the capability of being either a solar charge controller, a DC load controller, or a diversion load controller. +++++++++ The Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD) feature allows you to connect a DC electrical load that is the same voltage as your battery bank and have it turn off when the voltage of the battery bank is low. This protects the batteries from being drained (also known as deep discharging) which damages the battery cells and reduces their lifespan.

Types of charge controller

There are 2 types of solar charge controller:
  1. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controllers
  2. Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) solar charge controllers
Both charge controllers adjust the charging rate based on the battery’s charge level to try and allow charging close to the battery’s optimum capacity, as well as monitoring temperature to prevent the battery from overheating.

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